EI、Scopus 收录
Volume 53 Issue 4
Apr.  2021
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Gao Yang. REVIEW OF THE APPLICATION OF ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY IN TESTING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL MATERIALS[J]. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2021, 53(4): 929-943. doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-20-354
Citation: Gao Yang. REVIEW OF THE APPLICATION OF ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY IN TESTING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL MATERIALS[J]. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2021, 53(4): 929-943. doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-20-354


doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-20-354
  • Received Date: 2020-10-13
  • Publish Date: 2021-04-10
  • Graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials possess various excellent properties and hold great promises for next generation of electronic devices and other applications. The mechanical properties are of fundamental importance in the research and application of 2D materials. Despite the fact that 2D materials have been extensively investigated in the past two decades, efforts on the mechanical properties are strikingly lacking and vastly needed. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is one of the most widely used tools for the mechanical characterizations of low-dimensional materials. Particularly, the AFM-based nano-indentation technique has been extensively employed to explore the mechanical properties of 2D materials. In this review, we first introduce the basic backgrounds of 2D materials and atomic force microscopy. The mechanism and theoretical background of AFM-based nano-indentation are then demonstrated. In the second part, we review the research work by employing nano-indentation on studying the in-plane mechanical properties of 2D materials. The measurement errors of AFM-based nano-indentation and their origins are also discussed. Nano-indentation is perfectly suitable for the in-plane/intralayer mechanical measurement but also greatly limited in probing the out-of-plane/interlayer elasticity, due to the extreme anisotropy of 2D materials. Therefore, in the third part, we introduce an unconventional AFM-based technique - Angstrom-indentation which allows for sub-nm deformation on 2D materials. With such a shallow indentation depth comparable to the interlayer spacing of 2D materials, Angstrom-indentation is capable of measuring and tuning the interlayer van der Waals interactions in 2D materials. The interlayer elasticities of graphene and graphene oxide measured by Angstrom-indentation are discussed as examples in the third part. In the final part, we give a quick overview of a new type of 2D material - van der Waals heterostructure and its novel mechanical properties. We also discuss the potential application of Å-indentation in the investigation of the mechanical properties of van der Waals heterostructures.


  • loading
  • [1]
    Novoselov KS, Jiang D, Schedin F, et al. Two-dimensional atomic crystals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2005,102(30):10451-10453
    Geim AK. Graphene: Status and prospects. Science, 2009,324(5934):1530-1534
    Geim AK, Novoselov KS. Nanoscience and technology: A collection of reviews from nature journals. World Scientific, 2010: 11-19
    Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Morozov SV, et al. Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science, 2004,306(5696):666-669
    Berger C, Song Z, Li T, et al. Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2004,108(52):19912-19916
    胡耀娟, 金娟, 张卉 等. 墨烯的制备, 功能化及在化学中的应用. 物理化学学报, 2010,26(8):2073-2086

    (Hu Yaojuan, Jin Juan, Zhang Hui, et al. Graphene: Synthesis, functionaliation and applications in chemistry. Acta Physico-Chimica Sinica, 2010,26(8):2073-2086 (in Chinese))
    徐秀娟, 秦金贵, 李振. 石墨烯研究进展. 化学进展, 2009,21(12):2559-2567

    (Xu Xiujuan, Qin Jingui, Li Zhen. Research advances of graphene. Progress in Chemistry, 2009,21(12):2559-2567 (in Chinese))
    Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Morozov SV, et al. Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene. Nature, 2005,438(7065):197-200
    Zhang YB, Tan YW, Stormer HL, et al. Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene. Nature, 2005,438(7065):201-204
    Mak KF, Lee C, Hone J, et al. Atomically thin MoS$_{2}$: A new direct-gap semiconductor. Physical Review Letters, 2010,105(13):136805
    Kang J, Tongay S, Zhou J, et al. Band offsets and heterostructures of two-dimensional semiconductors. Applied Physics Letters, 2013,102(1):012111
    Radisavljevic B, Radenovic A, Brivio J, et al. Single-layer MoS$_{2}$ transistors. Nature Nanotechnology, 2011,6(3):147-150
    Li L, Yu Y, Ye GJ, et al. Black phosphorus field-effect transistors. Nature Nanotechnology, 2014,9(5):372-377
    Chen YB, Chen C, Kealhofer R, et al. Black Arsenic: a layered semiconductor with extreme in-plane anisotropy. Advanced Materials, 2018,30(30):1800754
    Huang B, Clark G, Klein DR, et al. Electrical control of 2D magnetism in bilayer CrI$_{3}$. Nature Nanotechnology, 2018,13(7):544-548
    Xi X, Zhao L, Wang Z, et al. Strongly enhanced charge-density-wave order in monolayer NbSe$_{2}$. Nature Nanotechnology, 2015,10(9):765-769
    Tao J, Shen W, Wu S, et al. Mechanical and electrical anisotropy of few-layer black phosphorus. ACS Nano, 2015,9(11):11362-11370
    Lee S, Yang F, Suh J, et al. Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity of black phosphorus nanoribbons at temperatures higher than 100 K. Nature Communications, 2015,6(1):8573
    Liu K, Wu JQ. Mechanical properties of two-dimensional materials and heterostructures. Journal of Materials Research, 2016,31(7):832-844
    郑晓静. 关于极端力学. 力学学报, 2019,51(4):1266-1272

    (Zheng Xiaojing. Extreme mechanics. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2019,51(4):1266-1272 (in Chinese))
    Akinwande D, Brennan CJ, Bunch JS, et al. A review on mechanics and mechanical properties of 2D materials - graphene and beyond. Extreme Mechanics Letters, 2017,13:42-77
    韩同伟, 贺鹏飞, 骆英 等. 石墨烯力学性能研究进展. 力学进展, 2011,41(3):279-293

    (Han Tongwei, He Pengfei, Luo Ying, et al. Research progress of the mechanical properties of graphene. Advances in Mechanics, 2011,41(3):279-293 (in Chinese))
    Pharr GM, Oliver WC. Measurement of thin film mechanical properties using nanoindentation. MRS Bulletin, 1992,17(7):28-33
    Chudoba T, Schwarzer N, Richter F. New possibilities of mechanical surface characterization with spherical indenters by comparison of experimental and theoretical results. Thin Solid Films, 1999, 355-356:284-289
    Chudoba T, Schwarzer N, Richter F, et al. Determination of mechanical film properties of a bilayer system due to elastic indentation measurements with a spherical indenter. Thin Solid Films, 2000, 377-378:366-372
    Chudoba T, Schwarzer N, Richter F. Determination of elastic properties of thin films by indentation measurements with a spherical indenter. Surface and Coatings Technology, 2000,127(1):9-17
    Saha R, Nix WD. Effects of the substrate on the determination of thin film mechanical properties by nanoindentation. Acta Materialia, 2002,50(1):23-38
    Cao G, Gao H. Mechanical properties characterization of two-dimensional materials via nanoindentation experiments. Progress in Materials Science, 2019,103:558-595
    Gao Y, Kim S, Zhou S, et al. Elastic coupling between layers in two-dimensional materials. Nature Materials, 2015,14(7):714-720
    Binnig G, Quate CF, Gerber C. Atomic force microscope. Physical Review Letters, 1986,56(9):930-933
    Gao Y. Force microscopy of two-dimensional materials. [PhD Thesis]. Atlanta: Georgia Insititute of Technology, 2017
    Frank IW, Tanenbaum DM, van der Zande AM, et al. Mechanical properties of suspended graphene sheets. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, 2007,25(6):2558-2561
    Cao GX, Ren YP. A paradox in mechanical property characterization of multilayer 2D materials based on existing indentation bending model. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 2020,187:105912
    Lee C, Wei X, Kysar JW, et al. Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene. Science, 2008,321(5887):385-388
    Wan KT, Guo S, Dillard DA. A theoretical and numerical study of a thin clamped circular film under an external load in the presence of a tensile residual stress. Thin Solid Films, 2003,425(1):150-162
    Komaragiri U, Begley MR, Simmonds JG. The mechanical response of freestanding circular elastic films under point and pressure loads. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 2005,72(2):203-212
    Lee GH, Cooper RC, An SJ, et al. High-strength chemical-vapor--deposited graphene and grain boundaries. Science, 2013,340(6136):1073-1076
    Wang G, Dai Z, Wang Y, et al. Measuring interlayer shear stress in bilayer graphene. Physical Review Letters, 2017,119(3):036101
    Wang G, Dai Z, Xiao J, et al. Bending of multilayer van der waals materials. Physical Review Letters, 2019,123(11):116101
    Bertolazzi S, Brivio J, Kis A. Stretching and breaking of ultrathin MoS$_{2}$. ACS Nano, 2011,5(12):9703-9709
    Castellanos-Gomez A, Poot M, Steele GA, et al. Elastic properties of freely suspended MoS$_{2}$ nanosheets. Advanced Materials, 2012,24(6):772-775
    Liu K, Yan Q, Chen M, et al. Elastic properties of chemical-vapor-deposited monolayer MoS$_{2}$, WS$_{2}$, and their bilayer heterostructures. Nano Letters, 2014,14(9):5097-5103
    Falin A, Cai Q, Santos EJG, et al. Mechanical properties of atomically thin boron nitride and the role of interlayer interactions. Nature Communications, 2017,8(1):15815
    Zhang R, Koutsos V, Cheung R. Elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe$_{2}$. Applied Physics Letters, 2016,108(4):042104
    Chitara B, Ya'akobovitz A. Elastic properties and breaking strengths of GaS, GaSe and GaTe nanosheets. Nanoscale, 2018,10(27):13022-13027
    Wang JY, Li Y, Zhan ZY, et al. Elastic properties of suspended black phosphorus nanosheets. Applied Physics Letters, 2016,108(1):013104
    Sun Y, Pan J, Zhang Z, et al. Elastic properties and fracture behaviors of biaxially deformed, polymorphic MoTe$_{2}$. Nano Letters, 2019,19(2):761-769
    Li Y, Yu C, Gan Y, et al. Elastic properties and intrinsic strength of two-dimensional InSe flakes. Nanotechnology, 2019,30(33):335703
    Wang H, Sandoz-Rosado EJ, Tsang SH, et al. Elastic properties of 2D ultrathin Tungsten Nitride crystals grown by chemical vapor deposition. Advanced Functional Materials, 2019,29(31):1902663
    Lipatov A, Lu H, Alhabeb M, et al. Elastic properties of 2D Ti$_{3}$C$_{2}$T$_{x}$ MXene monolayers and bilayers. Science Advances, 2018, 4(6): eaat0491
    Guo L, Yan H, Moore Q, et al. Elastic properties of van der waals epitaxy grown bismuth telluride 2D nanosheets. Nanoscale, 2015,7(28):11915-11921
    Niu T, Cao G, Xiong C. Fracture behavior of graphene mounted on stretchable substrate. Carbon, 2016,109:852-859
    Niu T, Cao G, Xiong C. Indentation behavior of the stiffest membrane mounted on a very compliant substrate: Graphene on PDMS. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 2018, 132-133:1-8
    Chen J, Guo X, Tang Q, et al. Nanomechanical properties of graphene on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate. Carbon, 2013,55:144-150
    Zhou L, Wang Y, Cao G. Van der waals effect on the nanoindentation response of free standing monolayer graphene. Carbon, 2013,57:357-362
    Zhou L, Xue J, Wang Y, et al. Molecular mechanics simulations of the deformation mechanism of graphene monolayer under free standing indentation. Carbon, 2013,63:117-134
    Zhou L, Wang Y, Cao G. Boundary condition and pre-strain effects on the free standing indentation response of graphene monolayer. Journal of Physics$:$ Condensed Matter, 2013,25:475303
    Bj?rkman T, Gulans A, Krasheninnikov AV, et al. Van der waals bonding in layered compounds from advanced density-functional first-principles calculations. Physical Review Letters, 2012,108(23):235502
    Fan W, Zhu X, Ke F, et al. Vibrational spectrum renormalization by enforced coupling across the van der waals gap between MoS$_{2}$ and WS$_{2}$ monolayers. Physical Review B, 2015,92(24):241408
    Wang Y, Zhou X, Jin J, et al. Strain-dependent Raman analysis of the G* band in graphene. Physical Review B, 2019,100:241407
    Zhang Z, Zhang X, Wang Y, et al. Crack propagation and fracture toughness of graphene probed by raman spectroscopy. ACS Nano, 2019,13:10327-10332
    Wang Y, Wang Y, Xu C, et al. Domain-boundary independency of Raman spectra for strained graphene at strong interfaces. Carbon, 2018,134:37-42
    Lin ML, Chen T, Lu W, et al. Identifying the stacking order of multilayer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition via Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 2018,49:46-53
    Wu Z, Zhang X, Das A, et al. Step-by-step monitoring of CVD-graphene during wet transfer by Raman spectroscopy. RSC Advances, 2019,9:41447-41452
    Cellini F, Gao Y, Riedo E. Å-indentation for non-destructive elastic moduli measurements of supported ultra-hard ultra-thin films and nanostructures. Scientific Reports, 2019,9(1):4075
    Song JH, Wang XD, Riedo E, et al. Elastic property of vertically aligned nanowires. Nano Letters, 2005,5(10):1954-1958
    Palaci I, Fedrigo S, Brune H, et al. Radial elasticity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Physical Review Letters, 2005,94(17):175502
    Lucas M, Mai W, Yang R, et al. Aspect ratio dependence of the elastic properties of ZnO nanobelts. Nano Letters, 2007,7(5):1314-1317
    Lucas M, Leach AM, McDowell MT, et al. Plastic deformation of pentagonal silver nanowires: comparison between AFM nanoindentation and atomistic simulations. Physical Review B, 2008,77(24):245420
    Narayan J, Gupta S, Bhaumik A, et al. Q-carbon harder than diamond. MRS Communications, 2018,8(2):428-436
    任云鹏, 曹国鑫. 褶皱与晶界偶合作用对石墨烯断裂行为的影响. 力学学报, 2019,51(5):1381-1392

    (Ren Yunpeng, Cao Guoxin. Coupling effects of wrinkles and grain boundary on the fracture of graphene. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2019,51(5):1381-1392 (in Chinese))
    Lin QY, Jing G, Zhou YB, et al. Stretch-induced stiffness enhancement of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. ACS Nano, 2013 7(2):1171-1177
    Ren YP, Cao GX. Adhesive boundary effect on free-standing indentation characterization of chemical vapor deposition graphene. Carbon, 2019,153:438-446
    李东波, 刘秦龙, 张鸿驰 等. 基于分子动力学的氧化石墨烯拉伸断裂行为与力学性能研究. 力学学报, 2019,51(5):1393-1402

    (Li Dongbo, Liu Qinlong, Zhang Hongchi, et al. Study on tensile fracture behavior and mechanical properties of GO based on molecular dynamics method. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2019,51(5):1393-1402 (in Chinese))
    Rajasekaran S, Abild-Pedersen F, Ogasawara H, et al. Interlayer carbon bond formation induced by hydrogen adsorption in few-layer supported graphene. Physical Review Letters, 2013,111(8):085503
    Kvashnin AG, Chernozatonskii LA, Yakobson BI, et al. Phase diagram of quasi-two-dimensional carbon, from graphene to diamond. Nano Letters, 2014,14(2):676-681
    Martins LGP, Matos MJS, Paschoal AR, et al. Raman evidence for pressure-induced formation of diamondene. Nature Communications, 2017,8(1):96
    Bakharev PV, Huang M, Saxena M, et al. Chemically induced transformation of chemical vapour deposition grown bilayer graphene into fluorinated single-layer diamond. Nature Nanotechnology, 2020,15(1):59-66
    Gao Y, Cao TF, Cellini F, et al. Ultrahard carbon film from epitaxial two-layer graphene. Nature Nanotechnology, 2018,13(2):133-138
    Cellini F, Lavini F, Cao TF, et al. Epitaxial two-layer graphene under pressure: diamene stiffer than diamond. Flat Chem, 2018,10:8-13
    Dean CR, Young AF, Meric I, et al. Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics. Nature Nanotechnology, 2010,5(10):722-726
    Ponomarenko LA, Gorbachev RV, Yu GL, et al. Cloning of Dirac fermions in graphene superlattices. Nature, 2013,497(7451):594-597
    Geim AK, Grigorieva IV, Van der Waals heterostructures. Nature, 2013,499(7459):419-425
    Liu Y, Weiss NO, Duan X, et al. Van der Waals heterostructures and devices. Nature Reviews Materials, 2016,1(9):16042
    Yankowitz M, Ma Q, Jarillo-Herrero P, et al. Van der waals heterostructures combining graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. Nature Reviews Physics, 2019,1(2):112-125
    Jin CH, Regan EC, Yan A, et al. Observation of moiré excitons in WSe$_{2}$/WS$_{2}$ heterostructure superlattices. Nature, 2019,567(7746):76-80
    Cao Y, Fatemi V, Demir A, et al. Correlated insulator behaviour at half-filling in magic-angle graphene superlattices. Nature, 2018,556(7699):80-84
    Cao Y, Fatemi V, Fang S, et al. Unconventional superconductivity in magic-angle graphene superlattices. Nature, 2018,556(7699):43-50
    李正, 杨庆生, 尚军军 等. 面内随机堆叠石墨烯复合材料压阻传感机理与压阻性能. 力学学报, 2020,52(6):1700-1708

    (Li Zheng, Yang Qingsheng, Shang Junjun, et al. Piezoresistive sensing mechanism and piezoresistive performance of in-plane random stacked graphene composites. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2020,52(6):1700-1708 (in Chinese))
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (3552) PDF downloads(1148) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint