The mechanical energy of fluid (including air and liquids) in the environment is one of the most abundant and important clean energy. Through different energy harvesting technologies (electromagnetic technology, piezoelectric technology), this fluid energy is successfully converted into electrical energy and used by people. Since the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) invented by the research group of Zhonglin Wang, this technology has become one of the most important energy harvesting technologies and has been applied to fluid energy harvesting. This article reviews the current research status of energy harvesting by fluid energy harvesting TENG (FEH-TENG). The principle of charge transfer between triboelectric materials in FEH-TENG and the basic working mode is introduced. In terms of airflow energy collection, this article summarizes the various mechanical structure designs carried out by researchers in order to stabilize the energy output of FEH-TENG and summarizes the research that expands the operating wind speed range in natural wind energy collection. Also, the energy harvesting by FEH-TENG in flow-induced vibration (including vortex-induced vibration, galloping, and flutter) is summarized. In the aspect of
liquid energy harvesting, the research works that wave and raindrop energy harvesting by FEH-TENG is summarized. In order to improve the energy harvesting efficiency of FEH-TENG, the research on the hybrid energy harvesting system based on FEH-TENG and optimizing the surface morphology and internal properties of triboelectric materials are summarized. Finally, the current problems of FEH-TENG in fluid energy harvesting are discussed and some perspectives for the future development of FEH-TENG are provided.