The development of a new-generation near space hypersonic vehicle towards whole aerospace and higher Mach number, which result in increasingly harsh aerothermal environments. Aerothermal environment prediction is one of the key technologies in the design of these near space hypersonic vehicles. During hypersonic flight, the kinetic energy is transformed into internal energy because of the strong shock wave and viscious retardation that is created around a vehicle. These generates a high enthalpy air flow and therefore shock layers is the site of intensive physics chemical non-equilibrium processes. A large amount of aerodynamic physical phenomena are involved in the study of the properties of high temperature gas flow fields. The excitation of the internal modes of vibration and electronic, and the gas quickly dissociate, recombine and ionization can create significant ionized particles, which makes the aerothermal environment prediction face all kinds of challenges. The development of high temperature thermochemical non-equilibrium aerothermal prediction technique is analyzed and discussed. First, a brief development history of high temperature aerothermal ground experiment technique is reviewed, the capabilities of aerothermal prediction ground wind tunnel and the research level of measurement technique are emphatically analyzed and introduced. Then, the aerothermal numerical simulation prediction technique are introduced, and the aerothermal numerical simulation law of thermochemical non-equilibrium flow field is discussed from the perspectives of thermochemical, radiation transport, wall catalysis and ablation. Finally, the development trend of aerothermal prediction technique is discussed, and the problems should be solved in the future of high temperature aerothermal test and simulation technique are also proposed.