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浅谈流体力学发展——从Batchelor百年诞辰纪念大会谈起

朱伟 王国华

朱伟, 王国华. 浅谈流体力学发展——从Batchelor百年诞辰纪念大会谈起. 力学学报, 2023, 55(1): 24-37 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-22-531
引用本文: 朱伟, 王国华. 浅谈流体力学发展——从Batchelor百年诞辰纪念大会谈起. 力学学报, 2023, 55(1): 24-37 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-22-531
Zhu Wei, Wang Guohua. Past and future evolutions of fluid mechanics: Thinking triggered by the Batchelor Centennial event. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2023, 55(1): 24-37 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-22-531
Citation: Zhu Wei, Wang Guohua. Past and future evolutions of fluid mechanics: Thinking triggered by the Batchelor Centennial event. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2023, 55(1): 24-37 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-22-531

浅谈流体力学发展——从Batchelor百年诞辰纪念大会谈起

doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-22-531
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金资助项目(92052202)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    王国华, 副教授, 主要研究方向为环境流体力学、高雷诺数气固两相流. E-mail: ghwang@lzu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: O35

PAST AND FUTURE EVOLUTIONS OF FLUID MECHANICS: THINKING TRIGGERED BY THE BATCHELOR CENTENNIAL EVENT

  • 摘要: G.K. Batchelor是20世纪国际流体力学大师, 在均匀湍流理论和低雷诺数微流体力学领域做出了开创性的贡献, 他对流动追求物理和定量性理解的思想影响了近百年流体力学的发展, 是流体力学顶级期刊Journal of Fluid Mechanics的创刊人, 也是剑桥大学应用数学与理论物理系(DAMTP)的创建者, 培养并影响了一大批在流体动力学理论、实验流体力学、湍流及稳定性、环境流体力学、多相流体力学、磁流体力学、微纳米尺度流体动力学等诸多领域建树卓越的学者. 本文以G.K. Batchelor诞辰100周年纪念活动为契机, 简要回顾了流体力学近300年的发展历程. 概述了流体力学发展历经的以数学和物理为基础建立理论框架的经典流体力学、以应用需求为导向促使自身跨越发展的近代流体力学和以学科融合为特点外延丰富的现代流体力学三个重要阶段; 以师承关系、代表性学者及其主要学术贡献为线索, 总结了现代流体力学四大学派的形成及其近百年的传承沿革; 以历史和发展的视角浅谈当代流体力学发展的动力和趋势, 并以风沙环境力学为例, 简述流体力学为分支学科发展提供的支撑和引领作用, 分支学科的需求为流体力学内生发展提供驱动力的螺旋生长关系; 最后是对未来流体力学发展进步和创新的展望.

     

  • 图  1  “Batchelor精神下的流体力学”纪念大会手册封面(由Keith Moffatt教授设计并提供)

    Figure  1.  The notebook cover of the Batchelor’s Centennial Symposium “Fluid Mechanics in the Spirit of G.K. Batchelor” (designed and provided by Prof. Keith Moffatt)

    图  2  流体力学家Batchelor (1920—2000)[1]

    Figure  2.  Fluid dynamicist Batchelor (1920—2000) [1]

    表  1  图1中处于经典流体力学阶段的学者信息[13]

    Table  1.   Information and contributions of the fluid dynamicists in the stage of classical fluid mechanics listed in Fig. 1[13]

    人名生卒年国籍主要学术贡献(仅限流体力学领域)
    Euler1707—1783瑞士理想流体运动方程; 欧拉法
    Navier1785—1839法国流体平衡和运动的基本方程; 黏性流体力学创始人之一
    Poiseuille1797—1869法国泊肃叶公式; 泊肃叶定律
    Froude1810—1879英国Froude数; 相似理论
    Stokes1819—1903爱尔兰黏性流体运动基本方程; 表面波; 非线性波; 黏性流体力学的创始人之一
    Maxwell1831—1879苏格兰麦克斯韦–玻耳兹曼气体分子运动论; 黏滞系数公式; 向量场旋度
    Rayleigh1842—1919英国瑞利数; 瑞利-伯纳德对流; 瑞利波; 瑞利-泰勒不稳定性
    Kovalevskaya1850—1891俄罗斯柯西-Kovalevskaya定理
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  图1中处于近代流体力学阶段的学者贡献[16]

    Table  2.   Major contributions of the fluid dynamicists in the stage of modern fluid mechanics listed in Fig. 1[16]

    作者(时间)学术贡献
    Reynolds (1883)雷诺实验; 雷诺数
    Reynolds (1895)雷诺分解; 雷诺应力
    Prandtl (1904)边界层概念、分离与控制
    Orr (1907), Sommerfeld (1908)黏性流动稳定性
    Blasius (1913)管道流动中摩阻的1/4幂律
    Taylor (1915)涡旋运动; 涡量输运理论
    Taylor (1921)连续运动引起的扩散; 拉格朗日自相关函数
    Richardson (1922)级串概念; 数值天气预报
    Taylor (1923)Couette流稳定性
    Prandtl (1925)混合长度理论
    von Karman (1930)壁面流动的对数律和外律
    Prandtl (1932)对数律的重新推导
    Nikuradse (1932, 1933)高雷诺数管道流动实验测量
    Taylor (1935)各向同性湍流; 湍流统计理论
    Taylor (1938)湍流的谱分析方法
    Karman & Howarth (1938)自相似理论; K-H方程
    Millionshchikov (1939), Proudman & Reid (1956), Tatsumi (1957), Orszag (1970)准正规封闭, 各向同性湍流相关方程的EDQNM理论
    Kolmogorov (1941)局部各向同性; 小尺度统计普适律; 结构函数的惯性域标度
    Obukhov (1941)惯性域内的功率谱标度
    Kolmogorov (1942), Prandtl (1945)计算湍流流动的模型输运方程
    Landau (1944)导致湍流的无限次分叉理论; 小尺度普适律的判定条件
    Peiyuan Zhou (1945)相关函数的微分方程; 湍流高阶矩模式理论
    Burgers (1948)一维模型方程
    Obukhov (1948), Yaglom (1949), Corrsin (1951)Kolmogorov思想推广到被动
    标量
    Onsager (1949)二维点涡的统计平衡
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  图1中处于现代流体力学阶段的学者贡献[16]

    Table  3.   Major contributions of the fluid dynamicists in the stage of contemporary fluid mechanics listed in Fig. 1[16]

    作者(时间)学术贡献
    Batchelor & Townsend (1951)耗散尺度间歇性
    Dhawan (1953)表面摩擦阻力的直接测量
    Kolmogorov (1954), Arnold (1963), Moser (1962)KAM理论
    Corrsin & Kistler (1955)外区间歇性
    Batchelor & Proudman (1956), Saffman (1967)低波数谱
    Townsend (1956)Structure of Turbulent Shear Flows
    Batchelor (1959)高Schmidt数被动标量理论
    Kraichnan (1959, 1965)场论方法(DIA及LHDIA)
    Obukhov (1962), Kolmogorov (1962)间歇性; 局部平均; 对数正态性; 精细相似性假设
    Smagorinsky (1962)LES模型
    Favre (1965)变密度平均方法
    Kraichnan (1967), Batchelor (1969)二维湍流
    Kovasznay (1971)条件抽样
    Monin & Yaglom (1971, 1975)Statistical Fluid Mechanics, 卷1、2
    Barenblatt, Zeldovich (1970s)中间渐近与不完全相似性
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-11-08
  • 录用日期:  2022-12-17
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-12-18
  • 刊出日期:  2023-01-18

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