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涡波一体乘波飞行器宽速域气动优化设计研究

刘超宇 屈峰 李杰奇 白俊强 刘传振 白鹏 钱战森

刘超宇, 屈峰, 李杰奇, 白俊强, 刘传振, 白鹏, 钱战森. 涡波一体乘波飞行器宽速域气动优化设计研究. 力学学报, 2023, 55(1): 1-15 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-22-412
引用本文: 刘超宇, 屈峰, 李杰奇, 白俊强, 刘传振, 白鹏, 钱战森. 涡波一体乘波飞行器宽速域气动优化设计研究. 力学学报, 2023, 55(1): 1-15 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-22-412
Liu Chaoyu, Qu Feng, Li Jieqi, Bai Junqiang, Liu Chuanzhen, Bai Peng, Qian Zhansen. Aerodynamic optimization design of the vortex-shock integrated waverider in wide speed range. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2023, 55(1): 1-15 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-22-412
Citation: Liu Chaoyu, Qu Feng, Li Jieqi, Bai Junqiang, Liu Chuanzhen, Bai Peng, Qian Zhansen. Aerodynamic optimization design of the vortex-shock integrated waverider in wide speed range. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2023, 55(1): 1-15 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-22-412

涡波一体乘波飞行器宽速域气动优化设计研究

doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-22-412
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金资助项目(11972308)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    屈峰, 教授, 主要研究方向: 计算流体力学、飞行器设计、高超声速空气动力学. E-mail: qufeng@nwpu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: V211.3

AERODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION DESIGN OF THE VORTEX-SHOCK INTEGRATED WAVERIDER IN WIDE SPEED RANGE

  • 摘要: 涡波一体宽速域乘波飞行器通过在低速引入涡效应, 显著改善了传统乘波体在低速状态下的升阻特性, 具有在未来宽速域空天飞行器总体气动设计当中得到广泛应用的巨大潜力. 但是, 该设计方法的研究尚不完善, 特别是在基准流场建立过程中忽略了三维效应、低速效应、黏性效应以及头部/前缘的钝化效应, 因此其高低速气动特性均有优化设计的空间. 针对此问题, 本文结合高保真RANS求解器、自由变形参数化方法、鲁棒的结构网格变形方法、离散伴随方法以及序列二次规划算法, 发展了基于离散伴随的宽速域飞行器气动优化设计方法. 基于上述方法, 针对涡波一体乘波飞行器开展了兼顾低速与高超声速气动性能的三维整机气动优化设计研究, 获得了宽速域优化构型并对其进行了流动机理分析. 结果表明, 相较于初始构型, 宽速域优化构型可以将飞行器高超声速状态下升阻特性略微提升的同时, 显著增强低速状态飞行器背风面的旋涡效应, 进而使飞行器低速状态的升力和升阻比均提升10%以上, 改善了涡波一体宽速域乘波飞行器的高低速气动性能.

     

  • 图  1  涡波一体宽速域乘波飞行器初始构型

    Figure  1.  Initial configuration of the wide-speed-range waverider with vortex-shock effects

    图  2  低速条件数值模拟数据(CFD)与风洞试验数据(Exp)对比

    Figure  2.  Comparison between numerical simulation results (CFD) and wind-tunnel experimental (Exp) datas at low speed

    图  3  高速条件数值模拟数据(CFD)与风洞试验数据(Exp)对比

    Figure  3.  Comparison between numerical simulation results (CFD) and wind-tunnel experimental (Exp) datas at high speed

    图  4  涡波一体宽速域乘波飞行器FFD控制框

    Figure  4.  The FFD box of the wide-speed-range waverider with vortex-shock effects

    图  5  基于离散伴随的宽速域飞行器气动优化设计方法流程图

    Figure  5.  The flow chart of the aerodynamic shape optimization design software for the wide-speed-range vehicle based on the discretized adjoint method

    图  6  低速计算网格

    Figure  6.  Low speed computational grids

    图  7  高速计算网格

    Figure  7.  High speed computational grids

    图  8  低速对称面处表面压力系数对比

    Figure  8.  Comparison of surface pressure coefficient on the plane of symmetry at low speed

    图  9  高速对称面处表面压力系数对比

    Figure  9.  Comparison of surface pressure coefficient on the plane of symmetry at high speed

    图  10  低速优化迭代收敛历史(H = 0 km)

    Figure  10.  Convergence history of the multi-point optimization iterations at low speed (H = 0 km)

    图  11  高超声速优化迭代收敛历史(H = 30 km)

    Figure  11.  Convergence history of the multi-point optimization iterations at high speed (H = 30 km)

    图  12  优化前后低速背风面压力分布涡结构对比(H = 0 km, Ma = 0.4)

    Figure  12.  Comparison of Cp distribution and vortex structure on the upper surface before and after optimization at low speed (H = 0 km, Ma = 0.4)

    图  13  优化前后低速下表面压力分布对比(H = 0 km, Ma = 0.4)

    Figure  13.  Comparison of Cp distribution on the lower surface before and after optimization at low speed (H = 0 km, Ma = 0.4)

    图  14  流向各截面位置

    Figure  14.  Four stations of the initial configuration

    图  15  优化前后流向各截面表面压力系数分布与几何外形对比(H = 0 km, Ma = 0.4)

    Figure  15.  Comparison of the Cp distribution and shape before and after optimization(H = 0 km, Ma = 0.4)

    图  16  优化前后涡强度对比

    Figure  16.  Comparison of $Q$ value before and after optimization

    图  17  压力变化明显处涡强度对比

    Figure  17.  Comparison of $Q$ value in the area of obvious pressure change

    图  18  优化前后$Q = 2$等值面速度云图

    Figure  18.  Iso-surface of $Q = 2$ before and after optimization

    图  19  压力明显变化区域流向各截面位置

    Figure  19.  Four new stations in the area of obvious pressure change

    图  20  优化前后流向各截面表面压力系数分布与几何外形对比(H = 0 km, Ma = 0.4)

    Figure  20.  Comparison of the Cp distribution and shape before and after optimization(H = 0 km, Ma = 0.4)

    图  21  优化前后低速升阻比随迎角变化

    Figure  21.  The lift drag ratio with angle of attack at low speed before and after optimization

    图  22  优化前后迎风面压力分布对比(H = 30 km, Ma = 5.0)

    Figure  22.  Comparison of Cp distribution on the lower surface before and after optimization at high speed(H = 30 km, Ma = 5.0)

    图  23  优化前后空间流场对比(H = 30 km, Ma = 5.0)

    Figure  23.  Flow field changes of the wide-speed-range waverider before and after optimization (H = 30 km, Ma = 5.0)

    图  24  优化前后流向各截面表面压力系数分布与几何外形对比(H = 30 km, Ma = 5.0)

    Figure  24.  Comparison of the Cp distribution and shape before and after optimization(H = 30 km, Ma = 5.0)

    24  优化前后流向各截面表面压力系数分布与几何外形对比(H = 30 km, Ma = 5.0)(续)

    24.  Comparison of the Cp distribution and shape before and after optimization(H = 30 km, Ma = 5.0) (continued)

    表  1  初始构型设计参数

    Table  1.   Initial configuration design parameters

    $Ma$$H/{\text{km}}$${\lambda _1}/\left( ^\circ \right)$${\lambda _2}/\left( ^\circ \right)$$\beta /\left( ^\circ \right)$$l/{\text{m}}$$d/{\text{m}}$$r/{\text{mm}}$
    53075501244.82
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  伴随方法和有限差分法$ {C_L} $梯度计算结果对比

    Table  2.   Comparison of the calculated gradient of $ {C_L} $ between adjoint method and finite difference method

    ${ {\boldsymbol{x} }_i}$$ {\text{Adjoint}} $$ {\text{FD}} $$\Delta $
    1−0.0012009543−0.00119905080.16%
    2−0.0016636907−0.00165039440.81%
    3−0.0021754850−0.00216482060.49%
    4−0.0028064119−0.0028072864−0.03%
    5−0.0037619742−0.0037800744−0.48%
    6−0.0038549877−0.00384949380.14%
    7−0.0021948405−0.00218261600.56%
    80.00636899450.0064160544−0.73%
    90.00634755780.0063972767−0.78%
    10−0.0012185973−0.00121501480.29%
    11−0.0016332886−0.00162025730.80%
    12−0.0020717078−0.00206043080.55%
    13−0.0025963844−0.00259378700.10%
    14−0.0033845191−0.0033885600−0.12%
    15−0.0033679694−0.00335651850.34%
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  伴随方法和有限差分法$ {C_D} $梯度计算结果对比

    Table  3.   Comparison of the calculated gradient of $ {C_D} $ between adjoint method and finite difference method

    ${ {\boldsymbol{x} }_i}$$ {\text{Adjoint}} $$ {\text{FD}} $$\Delta $
    1−0.0001784450−0.0001798483−0.78%
    2−0.0002787057−0.00027862740.03%
    3−0.0004033055−0.0004047013−0.34%
    4−0.0005931103−0.0005969683−0.65%
    5−0.0009984554−0.0010007805−0.23%
    6−0.0011902645−0.00118769980.22%
    7−0.0006175966−0.0006188222−0.20%
    80.00139307870.0013985036−0.39%
    90.00164252100.0016481783−0.34%
    10−0.0001240342−0.0001244595−0.34%
    11−0.0002186525−0.00021757360.50%
    12−0.0003205815−0.0003207870−0.06%
    13−0.0004707247−0.0004733808−0.56%
    14−0.0008045053−0.0008050683−0.07%
    15−0.0009910074−0.00098863750.24%
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  低速网格无关性验证结果

    Table  4.   The compute results of waverider at low speed

    ${C_L}$${C_D}$$\Delta {C_D}$
    coarse0.345630.073300.4%
    medium0.344790.073310.4%
    fine0.345600.07304
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  高速网格无关性验证结果

    Table  5.   The compute results of waverider at high speed

    ${C_L}$${C_D}$$\Delta {C_D}$
    coarse0.120110.025290.2%
    medium0.120570.025440.8%
    fine0.120260.02523
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  优化前后升阻力特性对比

    Table  6.   Comparison of the lift and drag characteristics

    $ Ma $OriginalOptimum$\Delta $
    $Ma = 0.4$${C_L}$0.345630.38737 + 12.1%
    ${C_D}$0.073300.07411 + 1.1%
    ${{{C_L}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{{C_L}} {{C_D}}}} \right. } {{C_D}}}$4.7155.227 + 10.9%
    $Ma = 5.0$${C_L}$0.120110.12018 + 0.1%
    ${C_D}$0.025290.02526-0.1%
    ${{{C_L}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{{C_L}} {{C_D}}}} \right. } {{C_D}}}$4.7494.760 + 0.2%
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  优化前后压心位置变化情况

    Table  7.   Comparison of the pressure center position

    $ Ma $OriginalOptimum$ \Delta $
    $Ma = 0.4$${C_M}$0.2250.26316.8%
    ${x_{{\text{cp}}}}$64.4%67.2% + 4.3%
    $Ma = 5.0$${C_M}$0.0830.0841.2%
    ${x_{{\text{cp}}}}$68.2%69.1% + 1.3%
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-09-04
  • 录用日期:  2022-11-14
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-11-15

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