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多个柔性梁V型集群行为节能机理研究

张磊 敖雷 裴志勇

张磊, 敖雷, 裴志勇. 多个柔性梁V型集群行为节能机理研究. 力学学报, 2022, 54(6): 1706-1719 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-21-688
引用本文: 张磊, 敖雷, 裴志勇. 多个柔性梁V型集群行为节能机理研究. 力学学报, 2022, 54(6): 1706-1719 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-21-688
Zhang Lei, Ao Lei, Pei Zhiyong. Energy saving mechanism of hydrodynamic collective behavior of multiple flexible beams in V formation. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2022, 54(6): 1706-1719 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-21-688
Citation: Zhang Lei, Ao Lei, Pei Zhiyong. Energy saving mechanism of hydrodynamic collective behavior of multiple flexible beams in V formation. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2022, 54(6): 1706-1719 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-21-688

多个柔性梁V型集群行为节能机理研究

doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-21-688
基金项目: 中国博士后科学基金资助项目(2019M652650)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张磊, 副研究员, 主要研究方向: 计算流体力学、流固耦合. E-mail: kellyioy@126.com

  • 中图分类号: O35

ENERGY SAVING MECHANISM OF HYDRODYNAMIC COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR OF MULTIPLE FLEXIBLE BEAMS IN V FORMATION

  • 摘要: V型排列是自然界中常见的动物(如大雁等迁徙性鸟类)集群模式, 普遍推测该模式可以有效地降低能耗, 然而目前没有研究给出相关的直接数据证据. 开展其节能机理研究有助于提升对集群自然现象的认知水平, 为集群仿生应用打下基础. 本文采用基于Fluent二次开发的数值方法求解多个柔性体−流体介质相互作用的流固耦合问题, 其中流体动力学方程采用有限体积法进行求解, 柔性体动力学控制方程通过用户自定义模块(UDF)嵌入, 并采用模态叠加法和4阶龙格库塔法求解, 流固交界面形变使用动网格技术处理. 实现了多个自推进二维柔性梁自主形成V型集群运动过程的数值模拟, 并将得到的推进性能参数(平均速度, 输入功率和效率)与单独自推进柔性体的数据进行对比. 研究发现: 该V型集群运动中不仅后排柔性梁的速度和推进效率得到提升, 领头柔性梁性能也得到大幅提升, 增幅均超过14%. 此外, 对V型集群运动的流场细节(涡量和压力云图)开展分析, 揭示了多柔性梁V型集群行为产生的原因和节能的内在机理, 特别是对领头柔性梁的节能机理进行了阐述.

     

  • 图  1  多个柔性体自推进V型排列计算模型示意图

    Figure  1.  Schematic of multiple self-propelled flexible beams in V configuration

    图  2  松耦合方法流程图

    Figure  2.  Flow chart of the proposed loosely-coupled scheme

    图  3  计算域空间离散示意图

    Figure  3.  Spatial discretization of the fluid domain

    图  4  纵向排列柔性梁导边运动参数时历曲线对比: (a) 水平运动速度; (b) 纵向间距

    Figure  4.  Comparison of time history of (a) streamwise velocity and (b) longitudinal separation distance of two tandem beams between the present solutions and Ref. [23]

    5  柔性梁导边水平运动速度时历曲线对比: (a) 网格无关性分析; (b) 时间步长无关性分析; (c) 模态截断分析

    5.  Comparison of streamwise velocity curves of the leading edge in (a) grid independence study, (b) time-step independence study, and (c) mode truncation study

    5  柔性梁导边水平运动速度时历曲线对比: (a) 网格无关性分析; (b) 时间步长无关性分析; (c) 模态截断分析(续)

    5.  Comparison of streamwise velocity curves of the leading edge in (a) grid independence study, (b) time-step independence study, and (c) mode truncation study (continued)

    图  6  3个柔性梁V型排列运动参数时历曲线: (a) 速度差值Uij(t) = ui(t)−uj(t); (b) 纵向间距Hij(t) = Xi(s = 0, t)−Xj(s = 0, t) (i, j = 1, 2, 3)

    Figure  6.  Time history of (a) velocity difference Uij(t) = ui(t)−uj(t), and (b) longitudinal separation distance Hij(t) = Xi(s = 0, t)−Xj(s = 0, t) (i, j = 1, 2, 3) of three beams in V configuration

    7  3个柔性梁V型排列流场细节图: (a~d) 涡量云图; (e~h) 压力云图. 特征值ωref=Uref /Lpref=ρf$U_{ref}^2 $分别被用来无因次化计算得到的涡量和压力

    7.  Fluid details: (a~d) vortices contour and (e~h) pressure contour of three beams in V configuration. The vortices and pressures are normalized by ωref=Uref /L, pref=ρf$U_{ref}^2 $, respectively

    图  8  3个柔性梁水平受力时历曲线, 特征值Fref=(1/2)ρf$U_{ref}^2{L}$被用来无因次化计算得到的合力

    Figure  8.  Hydrodynamic force experienced by three flexible beams in the horizontal direction during one heaving motion period. The forces are normalized by Fref=(1/2)ρf$U_{ref}^2{L}$

    图  9  5个柔性梁V型排列运动参数时历曲线: (a, b) 速度差值Uij(t) = ui(t)−uj(t); (c, d) 纵向间距Hij(t) = Xi(s = 0, t)−Xj(s = 0, t) (i, j = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

    Figure  9.  Time history of (a, b) velocity difference Uij(t) = ui(t)−uj(t), and (c, d) longitudinal separation distance Hij(t) = Xi(s = 0, t)−Xj(s = 0, t) (i, j = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) of five beams in V configuration

    图  10  5个柔性梁V型排列流场涡量云图. 特征值ωref = Uref /L被用来无因次化计算得到的涡量

    Figure  10.  Vortices contour of five beams in V configuration. The vortices are normalized by ωref = Uref /L

    图  11  5个柔性梁V型排列流场压力云图. 特征值pref = ρf$U_{ref}^2 $被用来无因次化计算得到的压力

    Figure  11.  Pressure contour of five beams in V configuration. The pressures are normalized by pref = ρf$U_{ref}^2 $

    图  12  5个柔性梁水平受力时历曲线, 特征值Fref = (1/2)ρf$U_{ref}^2{L}$被用来无因次化计算得到的合力

    Figure  12.  Hydrodynamic force experienced by five flexible beams in the horizontal direction during three heaving motion periods. The forces are normalized by Fref = (1/2)ρf$U_{ref}^2{L}$

    图  13  领头柔性梁对比: (a) 水平受力时历曲线; (b) 横向形变时历曲线. 特征值Fref = (1/2)ρf$U_{ref}^2{L} $被用来无因次化计算得到的合力

    Figure  13.  The comparison of the leading beams: (a) hydrodynamic force in the horizontal direction and (b) lateral deformation during one heaving motion period. The forces are normalized by Fref = (1/2)ρf$U_{ref}^2{L}$

    14  单柔性体和3个柔性梁流场细节图: (a~c) 涡量云图; (d~f) 压力云图. 特征值ωref = Uref /Lpref = ρf$U_{ref}^2$分别被用来无因次化计算得到的涡量和压力

    14.  Fluid details of single beam and 3 beams: (a-c) vortices contour and (d-f) pressure contour. The vortices and pressures are normalized by ωref = Uref /L, pref = ρf$U_{ref}^2$, respectively

    表  1  多个自推进柔性体性能参数比较

    Table  1.   Propulsive performance of multiple self-propelled flexible beams

    Collective behaviorVelocityInput powerEfficiency/%
    UP1P2P3P4P5η1η2η3η4η5
    single beam1.741.227.90
    3 beams2.011.261.291.2810.210.010.1
    5 beams2.021.241.441.441 271.2810.59.059.0510.310.2
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-12-29
  • 录用日期:  2022-05-17
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-05-18
  • 刊出日期:  2022-06-18

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