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气动载荷下防热材料剥离颗粒输运特性的直接数值模拟研究

李婷婷 李青 涂国华 袁先旭 周强

李婷婷, 李青, 涂国华, 袁先旭, 周强. 气动载荷下防热材料剥离颗粒输运特性的直接数值模拟研究. 力学学报, 2022, 54(6): 1523-1532 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-21-604
引用本文: 李婷婷, 李青, 涂国华, 袁先旭, 周强. 气动载荷下防热材料剥离颗粒输运特性的直接数值模拟研究. 力学学报, 2022, 54(6): 1523-1532 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-21-604
Li Tingting, Li Qing, Tu Guohua, Yuan Xianxu, Zhou Qiang. Direct numerical simulation of single ablative particle dynamics in near-wall Couette flow under aerodynamic load. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2022, 54(6): 1523-1532 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-21-604
Citation: Li Tingting, Li Qing, Tu Guohua, Yuan Xianxu, Zhou Qiang. Direct numerical simulation of single ablative particle dynamics in near-wall Couette flow under aerodynamic load. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2022, 54(6): 1523-1532 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-21-604

气动载荷下防热材料剥离颗粒输运特性的直接数值模拟研究

doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-21-604
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划(2019YFA0405200)和双分散气固两相流中相间作用力的微尺度和介尺度模型研究(21978228)资助项目
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李青, 博士, 主要研究方向: 颗粒湍流. Email: liqing2020@cardc.cn

    周强, 教授, 主要研究方向: 多相流模拟和实验、颗粒流体介尺度结构. Email: zhou.590@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: V411.4, V211.3

DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SINGLE ABLATIVE PARTICLE DYNAMICS IN NEAR-WALL COUETTE FLOW UNDER AERODYNAMIC LOAD

  • 摘要: 高超声速飞行器防热材料在气动载荷下发生机械剥蚀, 进而影响绕流流态、气动性能、热载荷等, 相关颗粒剥离动力学是高超声速热防护系统设计及防热材料体系评价中的共性基础性科学问题. 研究通过近壁流动量纲分析, 将烧蚀颗粒剥离过程模化为单个圆球惯性烧蚀颗粒在Couette流动中的动力学问题, 并采用颗粒解析的直接数值模拟方法开展数值研究, 获得了烧蚀颗粒关键特征参量对颗粒输运动力学的影响规律. 研究发现, 随着颗粒/流体密度比$ {\rho _r} $越大, 颗粒惯性St越大, 则颗粒水平和法向输运速度均减小; 随着颗粒粒径${d_{\text{p}}}$越大, 颗粒惯性St越大, 则颗粒水平输运速度减小, 但是, 法向输运速度和位移均因大颗粒受到更大的Saffman升力而增大. 此外, 烧蚀颗粒法向位移远小于水平位移, 颗粒以水平输运为主. 本研究最终建立了颗粒启动速度归一化表达式, 发现归一化颗粒启动速度是颗粒和流体惯性的函数, 即颗粒水平输运速度等于流体微团或中性浮力颗粒的速度减去惯性修正项. 研究结果为烧蚀颗粒调制边界层作用机理研究提供支撑.

     

  • 图  1  纤维增强防热材料在高温气流作用下的机械剥落示意图

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of mechanical spalling of fiber reinforced ablative composite materials under high temperature air flow

    图  2  飞行器头部流动示意简图

    Figure  2.  Flow around the aircraft nose

    图  3  不同压力梯度Falkner-Skan流动速度分布图

    Figure  3.  Velocity profiles of Falkner-skan flow at different half cone angles

    图  4  长方体计算域及其相关参数示意图

    Figure  4.  Cuboid computing domain and parameters

    图  5  Couette流中单个中性颗粒法向速度随颗粒到壁面位移的变化

    Figure  5.  The normal velocity of a single neutral particle in Couette flow varies with the particle displacement to the wall

    图  6  网格无关性验证算例(ρr = 10000, rp = 0.25, $ OX \times OY \times OZ{\text{ = 5}}{r_{\text{p}}} \times {\text{5}}{r_{\text{p}}} \times 2.{\text{5}}{r_{\text{p}}} $)

    Figure  6.  Grid independent verification(ρr = 10000, rp = 0.25, $ OX \times OY \times OZ{\text{ = 5}}{r_{\text{p}}} \times {\text{5}}{r_{\text{p}}} \times 2.{\text{5}}{r_{\text{p}}} $)

    图  7  不同密度比颗粒输运轨迹 (dp/δ = 1)

    Figure  7.  Particle transport trajectories with different density ratios (dp/δ = 1)

    图  8  不同密度比颗粒水平速度沿流向变化规律 (dp/δ = 1)

    Figure  8.  The horizontal velocity of particles with different density ratios varies along the flow direction (dp/δ = 1)

    图  9  不同密度比颗粒水平滑移速度沿流向变化规律 (dp/δ = 1)

    Figure  9.  The horizontal slip velocity of particles with different density ratios varies along the flow direction (dp/δ = 1)

    图  10  不同密度比颗粒法向速度沿流向变化规律(dp/δ = 1)

    Figure  10.  Normal velocity of particles with different density ratios varies along the flow direction (dp/δ = 1)

    图  11  不同密度比颗粒法向位移随时间变化规律(dp/δ = 1)

    Figure  11.  The normal displacement of particles with different density ratios varies with time (dp/δ = 1)

    图  12  不同直径颗粒水平速度沿流向变化规律($ {\rho _r}{\text{ = }}10\;000 $)

    Figure  12.  The horizontal velocity of particles with different diameters varies along the flow direction ($ {\rho _r}{\text{ = }}10\;000 $)

    图  13  不同直径颗粒水平滑移速度沿流向变化规律(${\rho _r}{\text{ = }}10\;000$)

    Figure  13.  The horizontal slip velocity of particles with different diameters varies along the flow direction ($ {\rho _r}{\text{ = }}10\;000 $)

    图  14  不同直径颗粒法向速度沿流向变化规律($ {\rho _r}{\text{ = }}10\;000 $)

    Figure  14.  The normal velocity of particles with different diameters varies along the flow direction ($ {\rho _r}{\text{ = }}10\;000 $)

    图  15  不同直径颗粒的运动轨迹 ($ {\rho _r}{\text{ = }}10\;000 $)

    Figure  15.  Trajectories of particles of different diameters ($ {\rho _r}{\text{ = }}10\;000 $)

    图  16  含颗粒的Couette流场压力云图

    Figure  16.  Pressure contour of particle influenced flow field

    图  17  不同密度比颗粒的非定常归一化启动速度随颗粒雷诺数变化规律

    Figure  17.  Dimensionless unsteady start-up velocity of particles along the particle Reynolds number for different density ratios

    表  1  激波前后来流参数范围

    Table  1.   Flow parameters beside the shock

    Before shockAfter shock
    density/(g·m−3)$ \rho _1^* $18$ \rho _2^* $O (0.1)
    temperature/K$ T_1^* $226.5$ T_2^* $O (103)
    inflow velocity/(m·s−1)$ U_1^* $6034$ U_2^* $O (103)
    coefficient of kinematic viscosity/(m2·s−1)$ \nu _1^* $8.3 × 10−4$ \nu _2^* $O (10−4)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  数值计算参数设置

    Table  2.   Numerical calculation parameters settings

    Dimensional
    parameters
    (superscript *)
    Reference quantity
    (subscript ∞)
    Dimensionless
    parameters
    Dimensionless values
    validationnumerical experiment
    shear rate ${B^*}$ ${B_\infty }$ $ B = {{{B^*}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{{B^*}} {{B_\infty }}}} \right. } {{B_\infty }}} $ 0.5 1
    fluid density $ \rho _{\text{f}}^{\text{*}} $ $ \rho _\infty ^{} $ $ \rho _{\text{f}}^{}{\text{ = }}{{\rho _{\text{f}}^{\text{*}}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\rho _{\text{f}}^{\text{*}}} {\rho _\infty ^{}}}} \right. } {\rho _\infty ^{}}} $ 1 1
    particle density $ \rho _{\text{p}}^{\text{*}} $ $ \rho _\infty ^{} $ $ \rho _{\text{p}}^{}{\text{ = }}{{\rho _{\text{p}}^{\text{*}}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\rho _{\text{p}}^{\text{*}}} {\rho _\infty ^{}}}} \right. } {\rho _\infty ^{}}} $ 1 10000
    20000
    30000
    coefficient of kinematic viscosity $ {\nu ^{\text{*}}} $ $ {\nu _\infty } $ $ \nu {\text{ = }}{{{\nu ^{\text{*}}}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{{\nu ^{\text{*}}}} {{\nu _\infty }}}} \right. } {{\nu _\infty }}} $ 1 1
    characteristic length $ {\delta ^{\text{*}}} $ $ {\delta _\infty }{\text{ = }}\sqrt {{\nu _\infty }{\text{/}}{B_\infty }} $ $ \delta {\text{ = }}\sqrt {\nu {\text{/}}B} $ $\sqrt 2 $ 1
    characteristic velocity ${U^*}$ ${U_\infty } = \sqrt {{B_\infty }{\nu _\infty }} $ $U = \sqrt {B\nu } $ $\sqrt {0.5} $ 1
    characteristic time ${t^*}$ ${t_\infty } = {{{\delta _\infty }} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{{\delta _\infty }} {{U_\infty }}}} \right. } {{U_\infty }}}$ $t = {\delta \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {\delta U}} \right. } U}$ 2 1
    particle diameter $d_{_{\text{p}}}^*$ $ {\delta _\infty }{\text{ = }}\sqrt {{\nu _\infty }{\text{/}}{B_\infty }} $ ${{{{d_{\text{p}}} = d_{\text{p}}^*} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{{d_{\text{p}}} = d_{\text{p}}^*} \delta }} \right. } \delta }_\infty }$ 2 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-11-19
  • 录用日期:  2022-04-06
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-04-07
  • 刊出日期:  2022-06-18

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