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金属增材制造中的缺陷、组织形貌和成形材料力学性能

陈泽坤 蒋佳希 王宇嘉 曾永攀 高洁 李晓雁

陈泽坤, 蒋佳希, 王宇嘉, 曾永攀, 高洁, 李晓雁. 金属增材制造中的缺陷、组织形貌和成形材料力学性能. 力学学报, 2021, 53(12): 3190-3205 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-21-472
引用本文: 陈泽坤, 蒋佳希, 王宇嘉, 曾永攀, 高洁, 李晓雁. 金属增材制造中的缺陷、组织形貌和成形材料力学性能. 力学学报, 2021, 53(12): 3190-3205 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-21-472
Chen Zekun, Jiang Jiaxi, Wang Yujia, Zeng Yongpan, Gao Jie, Li Xiaoyan. Defects, microstructures and mechanical properties of materials fabricated by metal additive manufacturing. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2021, 53(12): 3190-3205 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-21-472
Citation: Chen Zekun, Jiang Jiaxi, Wang Yujia, Zeng Yongpan, Gao Jie, Li Xiaoyan. Defects, microstructures and mechanical properties of materials fabricated by metal additive manufacturing. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2021, 53(12): 3190-3205 doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-21-472

金属增材制造中的缺陷、组织形貌和成形材料力学性能

doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-21-472
基金项目: 北京市自然科学基金资助项目(Z180014)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李晓雁, 教授, 主要研究方向: 新型微纳米材料的设计、制备以及力学研究. E-mail: xiaoyanlithu@tsinghua.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: O341

DEFECTS, MICROSTRUCTURES AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS FABRICATED BY METAL ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

  • 摘要: 金属增材制造是近30年发展起来的一种新型制造技术, 不同于传统的减材制造过程, 它是基于离散-堆积原理, 根据设计的三维数据模型, 逐层加工获得立体实物的制造技术, 具有近净成形、快速制造、设计自由度高等优点, 特别适用于具有复杂几何结构的高熔点金属构件的直接成形, 在航天航空、核能工业、交通运输、生物医疗等领域具有巨大的技术优势和广阔的应用前景. 本文首先介绍了3种典型的金属增材制造技术原理, 包括选区激光熔化技术、激光金属沉积技术和选区电子束熔化技术. 随后对金属增材制造中的熔合不良、气孔、裂纹等缺陷的形成机理及其控制方法进行了综述, 以激光功率、扫描速度和扫描策略等工艺参数为例阐述了工艺参数对成形构件组织形貌的影响, 同时介绍了金属增材制造技术在传统合金、高熵合金以及非晶合金等材料中的应用及其力学性能. 最后对金属增材制造在扩充可打印的合金体系、量化缺陷与残余应力对材料性能的影响、发展可预测组织形貌的模拟方法、建立金属增材制造数据库和相关标准等方向进行了展望.

     

  • 图  1  金属增材制造技术的应用领域

    Figure  1.  Applications of metal additive manufacturing technology

    图  2  金属增材制造技术原理示意图

    Figure  2.  Schematic illustrations of three typical metal additive manufacturing technologies

    图  3  金属增材制造过程中多尺度、多物理场耦合过程示意图[43]

    Figure  3.  Schematic illustration of multi-scale and multi-physics processes in metal additive manufacturing[43]

    图  4  金属增材制造中的缺陷

    Figure  4.  Three typical defects in components fabricated by metal additive manufacturing

    图  5  工艺参数对组织形貌的影响

    Figure  5.  Influences of processing parameters on microstructures

    图  6  金属增材制造合金的极限拉伸强度与延展性的Ashby图

    Figure  6.  Ultimate tensile stress vs. elongation of various alloys produced by metal additive manufacturing

    图  7  Fe19Ni5Ti合金的制备、表征与力学性能测试[96]

    Figure  7.  Preparation, characterization and tensile testing of Fe19Ni5Ti alloy[96]

    图  8  金属增材制造技术与高熵合金设计理念相结合[105]

    Figure  8.  Integration of metal additive manufacturing technology and high-entropy-alloy design strategy[105]

    图  9  Zr基非晶合金的制备及其力学性能[113]

    Figure  9.  Preparation and tensile testing of Zr-based metallic glass[113]

    表  1  金属增材制造技术对比[22-28]

    Table  1.   Comparison of three typical metal additive manufacturing technologies[22-28]

    SLMLMDSEBM
    heating sourcelaserlaserelectron beam
    powder feedpowder bedblown powderpowder bed
    environmentargonargonvacuum
    preheating80 °C ~ 300 °C100 °C ~ 250 °C200 °C ~ 1250 °C
    beam spot30 ~ 250 μm660 ~ 900 μm200 ~ 1000 μm
    scan speed10 ~ 2000 mm/s1 ~ 20 mm/s200 ~ 3500 mm/s
    layer thickness20 ~ 100 μm200 ~ 1000 μm50 ~ 200 μm
    advantageshigh-quality surface
    finish high strength
    high building rate
    gradient materials
    low residual stress
    malleability
    disadvantageshigh residual stress
    low building rate
    weak strength
    poor surface finish
    poor surface finish
    high cost
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-14
  • 录用日期:  2021-10-19
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-10-20
  • 刊出日期:  2021-12-18

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