Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (3): 487-496.DOI: 10.6052/0459-1879-18-077

Special Issue: 热应力专题(2018年第3期)

• Theme Articles on “Thermal Stress” • Previous Articles     Next Articles


Zhang Yuanxiang1, Liang Lihua2,*(), Zhang Jicheng2, Chen Junjun2, Sheng Yufeng2   

  1. 1 College of Mechanical Engineering, Quzhou University, Quzhou 324000, Zhejiang, China
    2 College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China
  • Received:2018-01-30 Accepted:2018-03-16 Online:2018-06-10 Published:2018-06-11
  • Contact: Liang Lihua


With the rapid development of microelectronics packaging technology, more attention has been paid to the electromigration (EM) failure on solder bump. The electric-thermal-structural multi-physical coupled analysis for flip chip ball grid array (FCBGA) packaging is performed in this paper based on FEM and submodeling technique. The simplified method of package model is introduced in detail. The current density distribution, temperature distribution and stress distribution of the key solder bump is investigated. It is found that the current crowding effect is easily generated at the location where electrons enter the bump from Cu metal layer, and the temperature gradient of the whole key solder bump is small. This paper presents the atomic density integral (ADI) method which considers four driving forces for electromigration such as electron wind force, stress gradient, temperature gradient and atomic density gradient. According to ADI method and the failure rule on void formation and diffusion, the electromigration void evolution process of the key solder bump is simulated with different mesh density. In can be found that the ADI method is stable and almost independent on the mesh density. The EM void location and time to failure (TTF) of key solder bump in FCBGA package is also simulated in the real service condition by ADI method. And the effect of solder material and Cu metal layer on EM failure is investigated in detail. We can see that the TTF of lead-free solder (Sn3.5Ag) is about 2.5 times than leaded solder (63Sn37Pb) because the TTF is determined to increase exponentially with the activation energy. And the EM failure is also influenced by the effective charge number. The adjustment of Cu metal layer structure will change the current flow direction and the stress distribution of the solder bump, which will affect the time to failure of solder bump.

Key words: electromigration, electric-thermal-structural coupled analysis, solder bump, time to failure, void evolution

CLC Number: