Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (3): 453-466.DOI: 10.6052/0459-1879-18-071

• Research Review •     Next Articles


Wu Ting1,2, Shi Beiji1,2, Wang Shizhao1,*(), Zhang Xing1,2, He Guowei1,2   

  1. 1 LNM, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190,China
    2 School of Engineering Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
  • Received:2018-03-14 Accepted:2018-03-26 Online:2018-06-10 Published:2018-06-11
  • Contact: Wang Shizhao


Large-eddy simulation (LES) is an important method to investigate unsteady turbulent flows. The cost of the wall-resolved LES is comparable to that of direct numerical simulation, which prevents the applications of the LES to wall-bounded turbulences at high Reynolds numbers. The grid length would be of the order of the viscous length to resolve the near-wall flow structures, which causes the prohibitive computational cost of the wall-resolved LES. Wall-models circumvent the flow details near the wall to avoid resolving all the flow structures near the wall, which significantly reduce the computation cost and have been successfully combined with the LES for turbulent flows. We discuss the basic idea of wall-models for LES and review the wall-stress models with implementation details. The construction and characteristics of the equilibrium models and the two-layer models are discussed in detail. The limitations of the wall-stress models and their improvements to account for the non-equilibrium effects are also discussed. We review the state of the art of the wall shear stress models and provide a hierarchical diagram for the current models. Finally, we present the applications of the Werner-Wengle model to the LES of flows over periodic hills.

Key words: Large-eddy simulation, wall-model, wall-stress model, two-layer model, flows over periodic hills

CLC Number: